COPD – Pulmonary Disease – COPD Full Form

COPD – Pulmonary Disease – COPD Full Form

COPD Full Form in medical

COPD full form is chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

COPD is also known as COLD or COAD

Full form of COPD is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Full form of COLD is Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Full form of COAD is Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

COPD definition


COPD refers to diseases that produce obstruction of airflow and include asthma, chronic obstructive bronchitis, and pulmonary emphysema.

What are the four stages of COPD?


Mild COPD: Airflow limited only less amount
Moderate COPD: Airflow is limited to worse level, and have shortness of breath after doing something active.
Severe COPD: Airflow and shortness of breath become worse, not even possible to do regular exercise
Very Severe COPD: Airflow is limited without medical help survival is difficult

GOLD grade FEV1
Mild (GOLD 1) >/= 80%
Moderate (GOLD 2) 50 – 79 %
Severe (GOLD 3) 30 -49 %
Very Severe (GOLD 4) <30 %

FEV1 is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of breath
FEV1 is forced expiratory volume normally it will be above 80 %

FVC is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the single large breath

Diagnosis of COPD

Spirometry:- Following values of spirometry is used to diagnose COPD
FEV1 < 80 %
FEV1/FVC < 70 % (Normal is 75 – 80 %)

X-ray Chest:- It shows hyperinflated lungs, a flattened diaphragm, increased retrosternal airspace and bullae
HRCT:-Full form of HRCT is High-Resolution Computed Tomography
It shows the distribution of emphysema throughout the lungs and can also be useful to exclude other lung diseases

COPD Causes


Smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD, chronic smoking increases cough stimulation and destroys the ciliary function and leads to inflammation and damage of bronchiolar and alveolar valves. Another main cause is air pollution and occupational exposure to pollutants.

COPD Symptoms


Varying degrees of Shortness of breath and cough with sputum
Pulmonary function study demonstrates reduced expiratory flow rates, reduced vital capacity, and increased residual volume, but the total lung capacity is frequently within normal limits.
As the disease progresses, hypoventilation occurs and ABG shows low PaO2 if an obstruction is severe an elevated PCO2 will be there.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment

  • Bronchodilators:- aminophylline, isoproterenol, bronkosol, and ephedrine preparations
  • Indirect bronchodilators:- adrenocortical steroids and antibiotics
  • Increase hydration to liquify secretion
  • IPPB or intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing
  • Oxygen Therapy: For patients with carbon dioxide retention, flow rates are adjusted so that the inhaled concentration of oxygen is not greater than approximately 30 %
  • Pulmonary physiotherapy
  • Inhalation therapy or Mist therapy

COPD Prevention

  • Smoking cessation
  • Decreasing exposure to smoke and improving air quality
  • Annual influenza vaccination in those with COPD reduce exacerbation, hospitalization, and death

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