Blood Products and their Uses | Components of Blood

Blood Components and their Uses and How to AdministerBlood Products Safely

Blood Products Uses | Functions of Blood Components

1.Improve O2 Transport
2. Volume Expansion
Whole blood
Plasma
Albumin
3. Provision of proteins
Fresh frozen plasma
Albumin
4. Provision of coagulation factors
Cryoprecipitate
Fresh whole blood
Fresh frozen blood
5. Provision of Platelets
Platelet concentrate
Fresh whole blood

Types of Blood Products and their Uses

Whole blood Uses and Transfusion Care

Whole blood - Blood products and their uses

Packed Red Blood Cells or PRBC Uses and Transfusion Care

Packed Red Blood Cells or PRBC - Blood products and their uses
  • RBC Replacement
  • Blood loss in pre and post-op clients
  • Rh and ABO compatibility required
  • Supply in 300 – 350 ml
  • PRBC Transfusion takes 2 – 4 hours
  • PRBC Storage temperature: 2 – 6 Degree Celsius
  • PRBC Shelf life: Up to 35 days from donation

Irradiated red cells are indicated for patients at risk of transfusion-associated graft versus host disease. The component must be irradiated by gamma or X -rays within 14 days of donation and it then has a shelf life of 14 days from irradiation

Washed red cells are indicated with recurrent or severe allergic or febrile reactions to red cells, and severely IgA deficient patients with anti-IgA antibodies for whom red cells from an IgA deficient donor are not available

Platelets

Platelets - Blood products and their uses

Platelets are prepared from whole blood donations are centrifuged and an adult therapeutic dose of platelets are obtained from a single donor by apheresis

  • Platelets are Used for thrombocytopenia
  • Units 50 -70 ml
  • Single Donor Platelet: 200 – 400 ml
  • Given rapidly over 25 – 30 minutes
  • Platelet Storage: 20 – 24 degree Celsius with agitation
  • Platelet Shelf life: 5 days

Fresh Frozen Plasma or FFP Uses and FFP Transfusion Care

Fresh Frozen Plasma or FFP - Blood products and their uses
  • FFP is Used for clotting factor and plasma volume replace (Eg:- Burns)
  • Contains no platelets
  • Infused over 6 hours of thawing/melting down
  • Rh and ABO compatibility required
  • FFP Unit contains 200 – 250 ml
  • FFP Storage: -25 degree Celsius
  • FFP Shelf life: 36 months (24 hours at 4 degree Celsius after thawing/warming up)

Albumin Uses

Human Albumin 20 % - Blood products and their uses
  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Prepared from plasma
  • Albumin packed with 20% of 50 or 100 ml bottle
  • Albumin Stored for 5 years

Cryoprecipitate Uses and Administration Care

cryoprecipitate - Blood products and their uses
  • Clotting factor (VIII)
  • Fibrinogen
  • Infused rapidly
  • Cryoprecipitate Storage: -25 degree Celsius
  • The shelf life of Cryoprecipitate: 36 months(Use within 4 hours of thawing/warming up, do not refrigerate)

Blood Products Administration – Nursing Interventions

Assess for a history of blood transfusion and any reaction
Informed consent
Check the doctor’s order
At least two nurses should verify:-
>> ABO and Rh type
>>Cross-match record
>>Client name and blood bag number
Expiry date
>> If any discrepancies do not administer
Administer immediately after receiving from the blood bank (It should be in room temperature)
Do not add any medication
Do not warm blood in a microwave or hot water
Inspect the bag
Obtain Vital signs
Initiate infusion with 18 – 20 gauge cannula and begin with NS infusion if ordered
Do not use D5%, DNS (It causes hemolysis)
Start transfusion slowly 100ml / hour
Stay with the client for the first 15 minutes and take vital signs
Monitor Vital signs frequently
Maintain transfusion at a prescribed rate

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