The branch of philosophy that concerns the distinction between right and wrong based on a body of knowledge
Respect for an individual’s right to self-determination
The obligation to do or cause no harm to another
The duty to do good to others
The equitable distribution of potential benefits and tasks
The obligation to tell the truth
The duty to do what one has promised
Taking personal responsibility for one’s conduct.
Using force, threats, or intimidation to make a person comply with a demand.
A situation in which two or more potential actions appear to be equally justifiable from an ethical point of view, i.e. one must choose between the lesser of two evils or the greater of two goods.
Repeatedly annoying, bothering, or intimidating someone.
The process of using experts within a scientific or academic discipline (or peers) to evaluate articles submitted for publication, grant proposals, or other materials.
The misrepresenting someone else’s creative work (e.g. words, methods, pictures, ideas, or data) as one’s own.
The processes for planning, conducting, monitoring, overseeing, and auditing an activity (such as research) to ensure that it meets appropriate standards of quality.
The ability to test a hypothesis or theory. Scientific hypotheses and theories should be testable.
Ethical Terms and Definitions
A written document that provides directions concerning the provision of care at the end of life (regarding treatment and death care)
A violation of civil law against a person or a person’s property. A tort is different from a crime, but serious tort can be tried in both civil and criminal action.
Failure to meet the standards of acceptable care, which results in harm to another person
Negligence is conduct that falls below the standard of care. In science, research that is sloppy, careless, or poorly planned or executed may be considered negligent
Actually touching or wounding a person in an offensive manner with or without the intent to harm
An intentional wrong that violates societal law punishable by the state; the state is the complainant
Felony: Serious crime, such as murder, punishable by a prison term
Misdemeanor: A less serious crime that is punishable by a fine and/ or a short-term imprisonment
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