Table of Contents
What is neoplasm
A new and abnormal growth of tissue in a part of the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer.
Before discussing the topic in details here are some terms you need to understand
Anaplasia is a condition of cells with poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells
It is the presence of cells of an abnormal type within a tissue, which may signify a stage preceding the development of cancer.
There are different types of dysplasia, they are hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia
The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells, often as an initial stage in the development of cancer.
Classification of Neoplasm
- Benign neoplasm
- Malignant neoplasm
- Cells adhere to one another, and growth remains circumscribed
- Generally not life-threatening unless they occur in a restricted area (e.g., skull)
- Classified according to tissue involved (e.g., glandular tissue [adenoma], bone [osteoma], nerve cells [neuroma], fibrous tissue [fibroma])
- Cells are undifferentiated (anaplasia) and rapidly dividing
- Cells infiltrate surrounding tissue
- May spread (metastasize) by direct extension, lymphatic permeation, and embolization; diffusion of cancer cells can occur by mechanical means and produce secondary lesions
- Membranes of malignant cells contain specific proteins (tumor-specific antigens)
- Tumours are classified according to tissue involved (e.g., glandular epithelial tissue [adenocarcinoma], epithelial surface tissue [carcinoma], connective tissue [sarcoma], melanocytes [melanoma])
Difference Between Benign and Malignant Neoplasm
|Benign Neoplasm||Malignant Neoplasm|
|Grow Slowly||Grow rapidly|
|Usually encapsulated; do not infiltrate surrounding tissues||Rarely encapsulated|
|Do not spread but remain localized||Infiltrate surrounding tissues, spread via lymph stream and blood and set up secondary tumors in distant sites|
|Do not tend to recur when removed surgically||Frequently tend to recur after surgical removal as a result of infiltration|
|Cells usually closely resemble those of normal tissues from which they arise||Cells usually do not resemble those of normal tissuse|
|Produce minimal tissue destruction||Produce extensive tissue destruction as a result of metastasis and infiltration|
|Do not produce typical cachexia||Produce typical cancer cachexia|
|Do not cause death to host except when located in areas where they produce pressure or obstruction to the vital organs||Always cause death unless removed surgically before they metastasis|
Staging of Tumors
Describes the extent and anatomic spread of a tumor at a given time, usually at diagnosis, and serves as a guide for prognosis and treatment
TNM Classification Of Tumors
- T designates primary tumor
- N designates lymph node involvement
- M designates metastasis
- A number (0 to 4) after any of the above letters designates the degree of involvement
- TIS designates carcinoma in situ or one that has not infiltrated
T0 indicates no evidence of a primary tumor
- T1, T2, T3, or T4 describes a progressive increase in the tumor, size, and regional tissue involvement; the higher the number is, the larger the tumor.
N refers to regional node involvement
- N0 means that regional lymph nodes are not abnormal.
- N1, N2, N3, or N4 indicates an increasing degree of abnormal regional lymph nodes.
M refers to distant metastasis
- M0 means no evidence of distant metastasis.
- M1 indicates distant metastasis.
Grading of Tumors
Classifies a tumor as to the degree of differentiation or lack of differentiation (anaplasia) from the normal cells
- The less a cancer cell resembles the normal cell of tissue origin, the greater its degree of anaplasia and the higher its numerical grade (grade 1 to 4).
- The higher the grade is, the poorer the prognosis.
G1 = well differentiated, resembles the normal cell
G2 = moderately well differentiated, some anaplasia
G3 = poorly differentiated, more anaplasia
G4 = very poorly differentiated to undifferentiated, highly anaplastic
Early Warning Signs of malignant disease
- Change in bowel or bladder habits
- A sore that does not heal
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- Thickening or lumps in the breast or elsewhere
- Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
- Obvious change in wart, mole, or freckle
- Nagging cough or hoarseness
- Unexplained weight loss
- Radiation Therapy
Goal of Treatment
- To destroy or eliminate malignant cells while minimizing damage to normal cells
- To cure the client and to ensure that minimal functional and structural impairment results from the disease
- If a cure is not possible:
- a. Prevent further metastasis.
- b. Relieve symptoms.
- c. Maintain a high-quality life for as long as possible.
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